Mental illness may be a common life experience | Science News for Students


psychological disorders articles

Learn about Psychological Disorders on, including information on symptoms, causes and treatments. According to the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 5), there are nearly different psychological disorders. Some of these disorders fit the definition of. Mental illnesses are diseases or conditions that affect how you think, feel, act, or relate to other people or to your surroundings. They are very common. Many people have had one or know someone.

Serious Psychological Disorders in College Students | Psychology Today

Mental disorders are patterns of behavioral or psychological symptoms that impact multiple areas of life. These disorders create distress for the person experiencing these symptoms. Neurodevelopmental disorders are those that are typically diagnosed during infancy, childhood, or adolescence. These psychological disorders include:. Bipolar disorder is characterized by shifts in mood as well as changes in activity and energy levels. The disorder often involves experiencing shifts psychological disorders articles elevated moods and periods of depression.

Such elevated moods psychological disorders articles be pronounced and are referred to either as mania psychological disorders articles hypomania. Both manic and depressive episodes can be frightening for both the person experiencing these symptoms as well as family, friends and other loved ones who observe these behaviors and mood shifts. Compared to the previous edition of the DSM, in the DSM-5 the criteria for manic and hypomanic episodes include an increased focus on changes in energy levels and activity as well as changes in mood.

Anxiety involves the anticipation that a future threat may arise. Trauma- and stressor-related disorders involve exposure to a stressful or traumatic event.

Dissociative disorders are psychological disorders that involve a dissociation or interruption in aspects of consciousnessincluding identity and memory. Formerly referred to under the heading of somatoform disorders, this category is now known as somatic symptoms and related disorders. In contrast to previous ways of conceptualizing these disorders based on psychological disorders articles absence of a medical explanation for the physical symptoms, the current diagnosis emphasizes the abnormal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that occur in response to these symptoms.

Eating disorders are characterized by obsessive concerns with weight and disruptive eating patterns that negatively impact physical and mental health. Feeding and eating disorders that used to be diagnosed during infancy and childhood have been moved to this category in the DSM Sleep disorders involve an interruption in sleep patterns that lead to distress and affects daytime functioning.

Sleep disorders related to other mental disorders as well as sleep disorders related to general medical conditions have been removed from the DSM The latest edition of the DSM also provides more emphasis on coexisting conditions for each of the sleep-wake disorders.

This change, the APA explains, "underscores that the individual has a sleep disorder warranting independent clinical attention, in addition to any medical and mental disorders that are also present, and acknowledges the bidirectional and interactive effects between sleep disorders and coexisting medical and mental disorders.

Impulse-control disorders are those that involve an inability to control emotions and behaviors, resulting in harm to oneself or others. Depressive disorders are a type of mood disorder that include a number of conditions. They are all characterized by the presence of sad, empty, or irritable moods accompanied by physical and cognitive symptoms.

They differ in terms of duration, timing, or presumed etiology. The depressive disorders are all characterized by feelings of sadness and low mood that are persistent and severe enough to affect how a person functions.

Common symptoms shared by these disorders include difficulty feeling interested and motivated, lack of interest in previously enjoyed activities, sleep disturbances, and poor concentration. For major depressive disorder, diagnosis requires an individual to experience five or psychological disorders articles of the following symptoms over the same two-week period. One of these symptoms must include either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in previously enjoyed activities.

Treatments for depressive disorders often involve a combination of psychotherapy and medications. Substance-related disorders are those that involve the use and abuse of different substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, opiates, and alcohol. The American Psychiatric Association explains that this change "reflects the increasing and consistent evidence that some behaviors, such as gambling, activate the brain reward system with effects similar to those of drugs of abuse and that gambling disorder symptoms resemble substance use disorders to a certain extent.

Neurocognitive disorders are characterized by acquired deficits in cognitive function. It is a complex, long-term condition that affects about one percent of people in the United States. The DSM-5 diagnostic criteria specify that two or more symptoms of schizophrenia must be present for a period of at least one month. Diagnosis also requires significant impairments in social or occupational functioning for a period of at least six months. The onset of schizophrenia is usually in the late teens or early 20s, with men usually showing symptoms earlier than women.

Earlier signs of the condition that may occur before diagnosis include poor motivation, psychological disorders articles, difficult relationships, and poor school performance, psychological disorders articles.

The National Institute of Mental Health suggests that multiple factors may psychological disorders articles a role in causing schizophrenia including genetics, brain chemistry, environmental factors, and substance use.

While there is no cure for schizophrenia, there are treatments available that make it possible to manage the symptoms of the condition. Treatments usually incorporate antipsychotic medications, psychological disorders articles, psychotherapy, self-management, psychological disorders articles, education, and social support.

The diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5 specify that in order to be diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder, a person must experience obsessions, compulsions, or both.

The obsessions and compulsions must also be time-consuming taking up an hour or more per day or cause significant distress or functional impairment, must not be attributable to another medical condition or substance use, and must not be better explained by another psychiatric condition such as generalized anxiety disorder. Treatments for OCD usually focus on a combination of therapy and medications. Antidepressants such as clomipramine or fluoxetine may also be prescribed to manage symptoms.

Personality disorders are characterized by an enduring pattern of maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that can cause serious detriments to relationships and other life areas. Psychological disorders can cause disruptions in daily functioning, relationships, work, school, and other important domains.

Psychological disorders articles appropriate diagnosis and treatment, however, people can find relief from their symptoms and discover ways to cope effectively. Have you ever wondered what your personality type means? Sign up to get these answers, and more, psychological disorders articles, delivered straight to your inbox. The DSM Classification and criteria changes. World Psychiatry. Social pragmatic communication disorder: a research review of this new DSM-5 diagnostic category.

J Neurodev Disord. J Autism Dev Disord. Ramtekkar UP. Children Basel. Classification of trauma and stressor-related disorders in DSM Depress Anxiety. Psychol Med. Feeding and eating disorders in DSM Am J Psychiatry. J Clin Sleep Med, psychological disorders articles. The role of identity in the DSM-5 classification of personality disorders. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health.

More in Theories. Adaptive behaviors are those that involve practical, everyday skills such as self-care, social interaction, psychological disorders articles living skills, psychological disorders articles.

Such delays relate to cognition, social functioning, speech, language, and motor skills. Once children reach the age where they are able to take a standardized intelligence test, they may be diagnosed with an intellectual disability.

The DSM-5 identifies four different subtypes of communication disorders: language disorder, psychological disorders articles, speech sound disorder, childhood onset fluency disorder stutteringand social pragmatic communication disorder. Mania is characterized by a distinct period of elevated, expansive, or irritable mood accompanied by increased activity and energy. Periods of mania are sometimes marked by feelings of distraction, irritability, and excessive confidence. People experiencing mania are also more prone to engage in activities that might have negative long-term consequences such as gambling and shopping sprees, psychological disorders articles.

Depressive episodes psychological disorders articles characterized by feelings of a depressed or sad mood along with a lack of interest in activities. It may also involve feelings of guilt, fatigue, and irritability, psychological disorders articles.

During a depressive period, people with bipolar disorder may lose interest in activities that they previously enjoyed, experience sleeping difficulties, and even have thoughts of suicide. Types of anxiety disorders include:, psychological disorders articles. While some stress and worry are a normal and even common part of life, GAD involves worry that is so excessive that it interferes with a person's well-being and functioning.

People who experience this disorder often fear that they will suffer a panic attack in a setting where escape might be difficult. Because of this fear, those with agoraphobia often avoid situations that might trigger an anxiety attack. In some cases, this avoidance behavior can reach a point where the individual is unable to even leave their own home. The anxiety caused by this disorder can have a major impact on an individual's life and make it difficult to function at school, work, and other social settings.

Some examples of common specific phobias include the fear of spiders, fear of heights, or fear of snakes. The four main types of specific phobias involve natural events thunder, lightening, tornadoespsychological disorders articles medical procedures, dental procedures, medical equipmentanimals dogs, snakes, bugsand situational small spaces, leaving home, driving, psychological disorders articles.

When confronted by a phobic object or situation, people may experience nausea, trembling, rapid heart rate, and even a fear of dying. Because psychological disorders articles this, people with panic disorder often experience anxiety and preoccupation over the possibility of having another panic attack. People may begin to avoid situations and settings where attacks have occurred in the past or where they might occur in the future.

This can create significant impairments in many areas of everyday life and make it difficult to carry out normal routines. People are often familiar with the idea of separation anxiety as it relates to young children's fear of being apart from their parents, but older children and adults can experience it as well. When symptoms become so severe that they interfere with normal functioning, the individual may be diagnosed with separation anxiety disorder.

Symptoms involve an extreme fear of being away from the caregiver or attachment figure. Disorders included in this category include:. Acute stress disorderwhich is characterized by the emergence of severe anxiety for up to a one month period after exposure to a traumatic event such as natural disasters, war, psychological disorders articles, accidents, and witnessing a death. As a result, the individual may experience dissociative symptoms such as a sense of altered reality, an inability to remember important aspects of the event, and vivid flashbacks as if the event were reoccurring.

Other symptoms can include reduced emotional responsiveness, distressing memories of the trauma, psychological disorders articles difficulty experiencing positive emotions. Adjustment disorders can occur as a response to a sudden change such as divorce, job loss, end of a close relationship, a move, or some other loss or disappointment. This type of psychological disorder can affect both children and adults and is characterized by symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, depressed mood, worry, anger, hopelessness, and feelings of isolation.

Symptoms of PTSD include episodes of reliving or re-experiencing the event, avoiding things that remind the individual about the event, feeling on edge, psychological disorders articles, and having negative thoughts. Nightmares, flashbacks, psychological disorders articles, bursts of anger, difficulty concentrating, exaggerated startle response, and difficulty psychological disorders articles aspects of the event are just a few possible symptoms that people with PTSD might experience, psychological disorders articles.

Reactive attachment disorder can result when children do not form normal healthy relationships and attachments with adult caregivers during psychological disorders articles first few years of childhood.


Mental Health and Disorders - The New York Times


psychological disorders articles


Mental disorders are not caused by character flaws. They have nothing to do with being lazy or weak. Who is at risk for mental disorders? Mental disorders are common. More than half of all Americans will be diagnosed with a mental disorder at some time in their life. How are mental disorders diagnosed? The steps to getting a diagnosis include. Sep 04,  · Psychology news. Read today's psychology research on relationships, happiness, memory, behavioral problems, dreams and more. Also, psychology studies comparing humans to apes. According to the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 5), there are nearly different psychological disorders. Some of these disorders fit the definition of.